Sunday, 11 June 2017

166: Why and how Mary in the Prayer of the Heart

Question: Mary is one of the requirements for a successful PH. In St. Teresa's writings Mary is not mentioned. I am not sure how to approach this. I know the qualities of Mary's humility, receptivity etc. is what we need to practise the PH. Can you please clarify this for me?

Answer: According to the analysis given in the Course, Mary is not only "one of the requirements" of a successful PH, She is the one that encapsulates all the requirements/conditions. She is The Real Facilitator, The Catalyst of the PH. Let us see how this factor can be addressed.

1- A Christian Truth

Mary summarises and embodies all the elements of our "yes" to God, of our gift of ourselves to God, She is its "frame" and “ship” (vehicle). The Virgin Mary "cooperated through free faith and obedience in human salvation" (LG 56). She uttered her “yes” "in the name of all human nature" (St. Thomas Aquinas, STh III, 30, 1). By her obedience She became the new Eve, mother of the living." (Catechism of the Catholic Church 511)
It is very important to understand that the basis of this "affirmation" that Mary is the vehicle of the gift of ourselves to God is part of the Revelation itself. We find it in various parts of the Bible:

1- The parable of the Sower, "fundamental/royal parable" and the parable of the New Skin and the New wine.
2- The parallelism that Saint Luke makes in the beginning of his Gospel between Zachariah and Mary.
3- The choice made by Saint John in his Gospel to place Mary at the source/root of the faith of the Apostles (John 2,11) "Mary's faith, according to the Church's apostolic witness, in some way continues to become the faith of the pilgrim People of God" (John Paul II, Redemptoris Mater 28)e

a) the movement should be done freely. “Lord I give you my heart in total freedom”
b) we should make ourselves like little children
c) we should put all our worries and concerns into the Hands of God
d) we should give ourselves totally (and not in part) - “Here Lord is my heart, entirely” -, and by doing that, we are, interiorly "moving", coming out of ourselves, as if we are dispossessing ourselves, giving God total access to our heart.
e) we shouldn't put any restrictions or conditions on this offering.
f) we should be doing it with real humility. “Lord, I await in humility”
g) we should have total trust in God. “I have complete confidence in your action and I leave myself in your hands”
h) we should abandon ourselves totally into His hands, to let Him act and work in us.
i) we should cast all thoughts from our mind.
j) we should wait humbly, even years if needed ,until God decides to give us his infused Grace.
k) we should work on the different virtues and grow in them.

There is a difference between the implicit contents of our faith and the explicit, expressed and conscious parts of Revelation. It is true that very few saints clearly expressed that Mary is essential, but some did. Saint Louis Marie Grignon de Montfort, for example, does it (see "True devotion"), and Saint Therese of the Child Jesus (in her Act of Oblation), and as well Saint Theresa of Avila (even though it requires a deep knowledge of her writings to "see" it).
It is very important to understand, penetrate and live on this contemplative Truth: Mary said "Yes" for me! Therefore in order to be able to say "yes" to Jesus (to live the Ephphatha (Mark 7:34), in order to give myself (which is the deepest aspect of the "yes") I need to see my "yes" in her "Yes", and to receive it from her, I need to be rooted in her!

God says in Ezekiel: “I will take the heart of stone and put a heart of flesh, the heart of Mary. Then, you will be filled by my Holy Spirit “(see Ezekiel 36). Mary is part of Jesus, She is flesh of his flesh (Genesis 2), She issues from his heart on the Cross: She is perfect disciple, and image of the perfect disciple for us, mother of the perfect disciple, the perfect model for us to imitate.. Therefore, all Christians are invited to ask God to transform their hearts in the image of the Heart of Mary: docile, capable of listening, capable of corresponding to the Grace of the Holy Spirit. One of the Main Gifts of Jesus on the Cross – the gift of Salvation - is to give us the "Mother" of our "Yes", the Mould of our "yes": Mary (John 19). He did indeed give Her to us on the Cross as the mother of our capacity to give ourselves to Him. Therefore "all generations" will have to consider Her "blessed" (Luke 2) because we owe Her this. She is the personal mother of my "Yes", of "my capacity to access Jesus", "to enter in Jesus" and "Dwell in Him".

This contemplative Truth is transparently clear as is stated in the Gospel, in Revelation. I do agree, we can easily notice that sadly it is not always seen, understood and practised amongst Christians! And we lose a lot by not following the Logic of God. If He adopted this way/means to reach us, why are we trying to go the moon on a bicycle? A human being cannot fly, cannot reach God by his own volition! And wanting to deal directly with Jesus simply doesn't fit in with the Gospel. Let me give you one final example: when Peter said to Jesus, on the very eve of His Passion: “I will follow you wherever you go”, Jesus replied clearly: no Peter you can't! Jesus didn't give an explanation, but still we can find it if we seek the inner meaning of Jesus' words. Jesus was adamant, He said: "no" to Peter, “you can't follow me now, you will follow me later!” Why? If we read the Gospel carefully, we will notice that nobody – except Mary – believed in the Resurrection! In fact nobody can cross the abyss that separates us from God! Jesus did it as the achiever of our Salvation, and since He gave first birth to Mary on the Cross, She was able to believe in Him, and be present to receive Him, Risen. I would even say: She certainly played an important role in "attracting" Him, bringing/enticing Him out of the Earth.

She is the one who kept the promise of the Resurrection alive, the Flame of that Promise alive. So it is through her flame that we light our Pascal Candle! We need to have enough humility to see that. This is what Saint John in his gospel tried to convey with the First Sign of Jesus: the intervention of Mary in Cana. The apostle lit their candle (their faith) from her Fire, from her lamp! What a mystery, a small candle can enflame the whole world. All generations, truly call you: Blessed, because you believe before Peter, before everybody, in the Resurrection, because you shared with us the Living Flame that you kept alive for three days, while Jesus was buried in the Earth.
The liturgy in many different Rites expresses very well the place and Role of Mary in our faith, whereas the Icons of Mary express these contemplative Truths. Pope John Paul II expressed it in many Documents, especially his Encyclical letter, and he certainly was extremely influential in putting gems about Mary into the Catechism.

2- In Saint Theresa of Avila

Now, if we want to see how Saint Theresa of Avila expressed truths about Mary, let us first examine this beautiful and deep text in the first draft she made of her book "The Way of Perfection" (Escorial Manuscript):

"I hope you do not think I have written too much about this already; for I have only been placing the board [like for playing chess], as they say. You have asked me to tell you about the first steps in prayer; although God did not lead me by them, my daughters I know no others, and even now I can hardly have acquired these elementary virtues. But you may be sure that anyone who cannot set out the pieces in a game of chess will never be able to play well, and, if he does not know how to give check, he will not be able to bring about a checkmate. […] How legitimate it will be for us to play it in this way, and, if we play it frequently, how quickly we shall give checkmate to this Divine King! He will not be able to move out of our check nor will He desire to do so."

It is of utmost importance to read this key-text closely. She mentions the game of Chess, and uses it in order to illustrate a very important issue in mental prayer: the relationship between what we have to do (what depends on us, the "general help of the grace of God"), and God's answer. To use her language, it is in fact the relationship between the "prayer of recollection" and the supernatural action of God, the "prayer of quiet". In other words, she is in a way trying to give us a "secret", how to "trigger" the supernatural action of God, the Grace of God! Per se, it is impossible, because it a "grace", a free gift from God, that depends on His freedom! But still, she will reveal a secret.

First and foremost let us understand how the game of Chess works, since some might not know it. There are two players, and each of them has a set of sixteen pieces, amongst them two important ones: the King and the Queen! Each piece has the capacity to move in certain directions only, and through these moves to "take" pieces of the opponent, in order to get closer to his kind and "kill" him. This is the very goal of the game is to "kill" the King of the opponent: it is called "to give checkmate". The Queen is the most powerful piece in the game, this is why one doesn't want to loose it. Theresa who played chess before entering in the monastery, does use the main idea of the game to illustrate the delicate issue of the relationship between us and obtaining infused contemplation, the supernatural one, or the Prayer of Quiet. She usually says that one needs to wait humbly for the time and the way in which God will give His Grace (see her Autobiography which is further endorsed by the general opinion of the majority of authors). But here, she is not saying the same thing, but is revealing the Secret by focusing her attention on the Queen. In the Chess game, as we have said, the Queen is the most powerful piece because she is capable of making all types of moves. Therefore she is the most suitable piece to "kill" the king, to "get him". Saint Theresa will mention the Queen, and in her example she applies it to two things:

1- humility (which was her usual option as we said, as she wrote it in her "Autobiography", written before the "Way of Perfection")
2- Our Lady, or, to be more precise: the humility of Our Lady. "he has regarded the low estate of his handmaiden" (Luke 1,48 )

The key here is to notice and make an important mental note about the power over God of the "humility of Our Lady"! In fact, her humility attracted God to dwell within Her! This is fundamental! Saint Bernard points out that nobody in human history was capable of attracting, seducing, alluring God and bringing Him into the human realm! Only Mary was able to do it. The Angel confirms Mary's capacity to attract God saying: "Do not be afraid, Mary, for you have found favour with God." (Luke 1,30). And Mary confirms this "power" she has by saying: "For behold, henceforth all generations will call me blessed" (Luke 1,48 ) Let us read Saint Theresa again:

"It is the Queen which gives the king most trouble in this game and all the other pieces support her. There is no Queen who can beat this King as well as humility can; for humility brought Him down from Heaven into the Virgin's womb and with humility we can draw Him into our souls by a single hair [quoting Canticle of Canticles]. Be sure that He will give most humility to him who has most already and least to him who has least. I cannot understand how humility exists, or can exist, without love, or love without humility, and it is impossible for these two virtues to exist save where there is great detachment from all created things."

Note that she is already coupling love (charity) with humility. Let us remember that humility and love and detachment are the three virtues that for her summarise the whole Gospel.

As we said in the Course, we cannot separate mental prayer from the work of the virtues. This is why we laid stress on the fact that Lectio and the Prayer of the Heart go together, for Lectio helps us, through a daily listening to Jesus, to work on the virtues and allow them to grow, under the direct Guidance of Jesus. Furthermore, we cannot separate all the virtues from humility. This is why, Saint Theresa brings to the fore here, as a general condition to bring about a checkmate, the work on the virtues! But let us be more precise: working on the virtues in a total, pure and heroic way as she describes it in the first part of the Way of Perfection, is one of the greatest catalysts of a true and pure gift of ourselves to God. Therefore, when we give ourselves totally to God, during the day, through listening to Him and putting Him in first place in our daily acts, we bring about a checkmate as well. Let us examine this:

"You will ask, my daughters, why I am talking to you about virtues when you have more than enough books to teach you about them and when you want me to tell you only about contemplation. My reply is that, if you had asked me about mental prayer, I could have talked to you about it, and advised you all to practise it, even if you do not possess the virtues. For this is the first step to be taken towards the acquisition of the virtues and the very life of all Christians depends upon their beginning it. No one, however lost a soul he may be, should neglect so great a blessing if God inspires him to make use of it. All this I have already written elsewhere, and so have many others who know what they are writing about, which I certainly do not: God knows that. 

But contemplation, daughters, is another matter. This is an error which we all make: if a person gets so far as to spend a short time each day in thinking about his sins, as he is bound to do if he is a Christian in anything more than name, people at once call him a great contemplative; and then they expect him to have the rare virtues which a great contemplative is bound to possess; he may even think he has them himself, but he will be quite wrong. In his early stages he did not even know how to set out the chess-board [working on the virtues], and thought that, in order to give checkmate, it would be enough to be able to recognize the pieces. But that is impossible, for this King does not allow Himself to be taken except by one who surrenders wholly to Him." (Way of Perfection ch.16 (in fact it is a copy from Chapter 25 of the Manuscript of Escorial)

So, summing it up, we can say that Saint Theresa, in this text is not saying it with absolute clarity, but still, she does mention humility, and the humility of Mary. Of course we would like her to say it clearly, but it is there, the allusion to Mary is there. Nonetheless isn't it enough that she said that it is Mary's humility that brought God down from heaven? 

Another aspect of the gift of ourselves is that it is deposited in the hands of Mary and that she presents it to God. This is expressed in Saint Theresa at least twice. At 1572, while Saint Theresa was at her original Monastery, the Incarnation, she received on 19th of January this grace: 

"On the eve of Saint Sebastian, during the first year in which I was Prioress at the Incarnation/ at the beginning of the Salve, I saw the Mother of God, with a great multitude of angels, descend to the Prioress's stall, where Our Lady is enthroned, and seat herself there. I do not believe I saw the image then but only this Lady. She looked to me rather like the picture which the Countess gave me, though the vision passed too quickly for me to decide this because immediately my faculties became completely suspended. There seemed to be angels above the misericords and on the kneeling rests of the stalls, though I did not see them in bodily form, because this was an intellectual vision. Our Lady remained there during the whole of the Salve and said to me: "Thou hast done well to place me here; I will be here when praises are offered to my Son and will present them to Him." After that I remained in the state of prayer which I experience when my soul is in the company of the Most Holy Trinity; and I thought that the Person of the Father drew me to Himself and spoke words that were most comfortable. Among them were these, which showed me the love He had for me: "I gave thee My Son and the Holy Spirit and this Virgin. What canst thou give Me?" (Spiritual Relations, XXV, Incarnation, 19 January 1572) 

What we see here is a first understanding of a very important Catholic Truth: Mary presents our prayers and petitions to Jesus-God. At first we might think that this Truth is simply and only a devotion (and therefore not a theological truth), and/or that it is specific to the Carmelites (and therefore not a universal truth). In fact, Theresa is praying in the choir and Mary descends and stands in the Prioress' stall during the last prayer, the Salve Regina Hymn/Antiphon to Mary! To take this place shows that Mary explains that she is leading the prayer of the nuns. But, on top of just leading, we can say that God, through this vision, is renewing in Saint Theresa a common Carmelite belief that the Order is Mary's Order, and that Mary is presenting all the prayers that are made in any Carmelite monastery, to God. Before seeing the catholic/universal dimension of this truth let us see another grace Saint Theresa received three and a half years later:

"I am specially happy on the day of the Nativity of Our Lady. I have thought it well, whenever this day comes round, to renew my vows; and once, when. I was about to do this, the Virgin Our Lady was represented to me in an illuminative vision. I seemed to be renewing my vows to her and she was pleased at this. This vision remained with me for some days, and Our Lady stayed near me, on my left hand." (Spiritual Relations, XLVIII, Seville 8 sept 1575) 

The vows are the gift of oneself to God. It is not, per se, unusual for her as a Carmelite to make/place her vows in the hands of Mary. Before Council Vatican II the text of the Profession of a Carmelite did state that the vows were made to Mary (and "to God" of course). Although it should be "common" as a concept in the Carmelite Order in the time of Saint Theresa – the Order "of Our Lady" as it was known – it is important to acknowledge the real dimension and value of this grace: a Marian grace given to her, and as well as a common element of the revealed datum to all Christians. Both De Monfort mentions it, and the Catechism of the Catholic Church as well.

In fact the Catechism says:

- "Mary is the perfect Orans (pray-er), a figure of the Church. When we pray to Her, we are adhering with Her to the plan of the Father, who sends his Son to save all men. Like the beloved disciple we welcome Jesus' Mother into our homes, (Jn 19:27) for she has become the Mother of all the living. We can pray with and to Her. The prayer of the Church is sustained (carried) by the prayer of Mary and united with it in hope.(LG 68-69)" (CCC 2679)
and furthermore:
- "The Virgin Mary "cooperated through free faith and obedience in human salvation" (LG 56). She uttered her yes "in the name of all human nature" (St. Thomas Aquinas, STh III, 30, 1). By her obedience She became the new Eve, mother of the living." (CCC 511)
See as well: 148, 149, 273, (967: she is the "exemplary realization" (typus) of the Church.). Therefore it is not a personal grace given to Saint Theresa only, it is a Catholic Truth that Mary conveys all our prayers and petitions and presents them to Jesus! Her intercession is much more powerful than the intercession of the entire faithful. She is the Mother of the Church.
To continue to confirm that it is a universal theological truth, let us see what De Monfort says in the "True Devotion to Mary":
"Since by this devotion we give to our Lord, through the hands of his holy Mother, all our good works, she purifies them, making them beautiful and acceptable to her Son.

(1) She purifies them of every taint of self-love and of that unconscious attachment to creatures which slips unnoticed into our best actions. Her hands have never been known to be idle or uncreative. They purify everything they touch. As soon as the Blessed Virgin receives our good works, she removes any blemish or imperfection she may find in them.
(2) She enriches our good works by adorning them with her own merits and virtues. It is as if a poor peasant, wishing to win the friendship and favour of the king, were to go to the queen and give her an apple - his only possession - for her to offer it to the king. The queen, accepting the peasant’s humble gift, puts it on a beautiful golden dish and presents it to the king on behalf of the peasant. The apple in itself would not be a gift worthy of a king, but presented by the queen in person on a dish of gold, it becomes fit for any king.
(3) Mary presents our good works to Jesus. She does not keep anything we offer for herself, as if she were our last end, but unfailingly gives everything to Jesus. So by the very fact we give anything to her, we are giving it to Jesus. Whenever we praise and glorify her, she sings today as she did on the day Elizabeth praised her; “My soul glorifies the Lord.”

At Mary’s request, Jesus accepts the gift of our good works, no matter how poor and insignificant they may be for one who is the King of Kings, the Holiest of the Holy. When we present anything to Jesus by ourselves, relying on our own dispositions and efforts, He examines our gift and often rejects it because it is stained with self-love, just as He once rejected the sacrifices of the Jews because they were imbued with selfish motives.

But when we present something to Him by the pure, virginal hands of his beloved Mother, we take/capture/challenge Him on his weak side, in a manner of speaking. He does not consider so much the present itself as the person who offers it. Thus Mary, who is never slighted by her Son but is always well received, prevails upon Him to accept with pleasure everything She offers him, regardless of its value. Mary has only to present the gift for Jesus graciously to accept it. This is what St. Bernard strongly recommended to all those he was guiding along the pathway to perfection. “When you want to offer something to God, to be welcomed by him, be sure to offer it through the worthy Mother of God, if you do not wish to see it rejected.”" (True Devotion 146-149)

Let us just remember that Montfort calls these truths about Our Lady and her role in our spiritual life: Secret! A Secret that God revealed to him! It is not a "new revelation", or a "private revelation", but it is a secret within the wide concept of Revelation, like the Bible says: "It is the glory of God to conceal things, but the glory of kings is to search things out." (Pr 25,2)

3- Mary sums up (embodies) the conditions

According to many masters of spiritual life, the requirements for a successful movement of the Prayer of the Heart (i.e. offering of oneself to God) as we have presented them are the following:
etc…

If one of these conditions is lacking, the movement cannot normally occur because God never allows Himself to act in us, until we give Him, clearly, freely and truly access to us. Our heart (that we give Him) is the deepest and dearest part of ourselves, the most intimate part of our being. God has the utmost respect for it, therefore, He doesn't touch it.

In this light, then, how on earth, is it possible for a human being to put together all these difficult conditions? It looks very difficult, if not impossible to attain any supernatural mental prayer.

But thank God, having received the Secret from God, we know now how to do it. To sum up all these conditions neatly we can say:

Being in the presence of Mary, and counting on her action, we offer ourselves (like little children) in her hands, abandoning ourselves to her action, with total trust, throwing ourselves into her arms, putting our head on her chest and closing our eyes, repeating gently: "pray for us sinners". The result is immediate: She introduces us into Jesus forthwith.

In Mary we have a spacious vessel ready to come and take our heart and put it into the heart of the Lord. An enormous distance which only the Virgin can cross.

But, first of all, we ask: why the Virgin Mary? Because this is the Logic of God, can be the only answer. When He wanted to give Himself to us humans He took the road of the Virgin Mary. The Father entrusted his Son to Mary. In Her, God met human nature. She is the holy place were God and human nature meet, each one of us meets, and where He unites Himself to us. "For, by his Incarnation, He, the son of God, in a certain way united Himself with each man." (John Paul II Redemptor hominis, 8)

Therefore when any human being would like to meet God and give himself to Him, it is logical to take the same road as the logic of God himself took: Mary. "A servant is not greater than his master; nor is he who is sent greater than he who sent him" (John 13,16). Why would we then dare take another route than His? If the Lord established that in order to come to us he needed Mary's "Yes", why would He change this logic for us to come to Him? We still need Mary's "Yes" to go to Him. Her "YES" and her action are necessary; it is the logic of the Incarnation.

If this movement of offering is, in fact ,to throw ourselves into the arms of Mary, trusting that She will take our heart and put it into the heart of the Lord, it is done, all the necessary ingredients for a successful immersion in God being present. Why? Because to give oneself to the Virgin Mary is easy and simple. When one gives oneself to the Virgin Mary this implies some degree of humility, because we put ourselves like a little child into her arms. We cannot deal frequently with the Virgin Mary and remain proud. She said: "he has regarded the humility of His servant" (Luke 1,48) – "humility" not "beauty" nor "virtue". When we give ourselves to the Virgin Mary, we give ourselves in the same way that a little child gives himself to his mother, and the Lord has said: "unless you become like little children you cannot enter the Kingdom of heaven". Unless I trust in Her action, the spacious vessel will not be able to be effective.

Recourse to the Virgin Mary is fundamental and, more than this, "SHE ALWAYS COMES". She never says “no” to us, and God never says “no” to her. Her action (intercession), capacity to elevate/introduce us into God is all-powerful, because all her being is burning with the Fire of the Holy Spirit and all her acts are moved by the Holy Spirit (Saint John of the Cross)

"[…] as I have said, God alone moves the faculties of these souls to do those works which are meet, according to the will and ordinance of God, and they cannot be moved to do others; and thus the works and prayers of these souls are always effectual. Such were those of the most glorious Virgin Our Lady, who, being raised to this high estate from the beginning, had never the form of any creature imprinted in her soul, neither was moved by such, but was invariably guided by the Holy Spirit." (Ascent of Mount Carmel, III,2,10)

The Virgin Mary is present, She acts, She wants to act but it is necessary to have recourse to Her. If we do so, She comes and acts every time. Her presence acts as a catalyst to ensure that all the right conditions are there. And so when we practice the prayer of the heart this way, we are putting together all the ingredients without fulfilling them separately one after the other: She brings them all together. Only from time to time, if we feel that something is not working, we may check that all the ingredients are present: if the gift of ourselves to the Virgin Mary is truly total, if we have total trust in her action and abandon ourselves into her hands like a little child. The presence of the Virgin Mary is of the utmost importance.

The Virgin Mary always comes. This is a certainty with which we must live. She is the key to the world of grace; it is She who lifted the embargo to gain access to the Tree of Life (Jesus), imposed after the fall. She it is who said “yes” to God and who repeated it for us, on condition that we have recourse to her, that we recognise that God has given Her to us, like a door, or a key, as a way of gaining access, as a loving and effective presence, one which acts in a maternal way. She always comes.

Friday, 26 May 2017

165: Spiritual Demography of a Parish

Spiritual Demography (from prefix demo- from Ancient Greek δῆμος dēmos meaning "the people", and -graphy from γράφω graphō, implies "writing, description or measurement") is the statistical study and analysis of populations according to the criterium of Spiritual Life. Spiritual Demographics are quantifiable spiritual characteristics of a given population. “Spiritual Demography of a Parish” is the statistical analysis and study of the Spiritual Life of the Faithful in a given Parish.


How do we “measure” and discern the Stages of Spiritual Life?

First and foremost we need to be aware of the existence of a Journey of Growth that starts with Jesus’ Call to follow Him and that leads to Holiness. The Doctors of the Church like St Bernard, St Bonaventura, St Teresa of Avila, St John of the Cross,… studied and presented the different levels of growth in spiritual life and the criteria to establish them. We cannot afford to neglect that effort. It is by having a clear understanding of the stages of growth that we can understand what “Spiritual Demographics” mean.
The Church is Mother and Mistress, and what interests her is to help us reach the fullness of our vocation, in following Jesus to union with him and to the fullness of Love.

The following video explains how we could implement "Spiritual Demography" using the masterpiece of St Teresa of Avila: "The Interior Castle".


The Six-Minute Video

The goal of the following video is to trigger a different way of thinking and planning Pastoral work:

1- It opens the horizon to the existence of an entire journey that leads to Holiness (avoiding the reduction of the individual Christian's spiritual life to two general elements: general random prayers, Sunday Mass, some charitable works).
2- It indicates that each stage in spiritual growth has its own needs, spiritual food and discernment.
3- It takes into consideration, within Pastoral work, the spiritual needs of each person.

4- It offers a greater impulse for motivating people to use the proper means in order to trigger growth.




Objections

Some might object that the different stages of growth of spiritual life are too artificial (excessive compartmenting) or that they should not be used in the discernment of what type of Pastoral to offer (type of teaching etc.).

To these objections one has to clarify some essential points about Spiritual Life:

1- The Church cannot on one hand claim to call everybody to Holiness and not be able to offer any explanation of how to go about reaching this goal: a- description of Holiness, b- an explanation of the stages to reach it c- presenting the practical means to reach it, d- offering the needed discernment to guide the persons in this journey of growth.

2- Claiming that these different stages of growth do not exist as St Teresa or other Doctors of the Church put them to us is a profound mistake as follows:

  1. What is then mortal sin and the need for Christian conversion?
  2. What is the need for an ordered and moral life?
  3. What are the duties of a Christian?
  4. What is Jesus’ personal Call to follow Him? (the Call for holiness becomes clearer at a certain point in one's life! What then is the “Second Conversion”?)
  5. What is a committed Prayer Life?
  6. What is Purification, Sanctification?

These few questions show that talking about stages of growth is not lacking in deep sense. It is just that we are not used to think this way. Hence the vital need for that renewed vision of Pastoral Life.
Pope John Paul II in his Pastoral Letter, “Novo Millenium Enuente” underlined (as mentioned in the video) the need to put holiness as the fundamental plan for Parishes. Very audacious, but coherent and in tune with the Universal Call to Holiness that Vatican II reminded us of.


Articles

In order to understand the different core aspects that are part of the Journey of Spiritual Growth, please find here a series of different articles, each one explaining a needed aspect that complements the explanation given in the Video. They help us make further steps in the study of pastoral analysis and planning.



The use of Spiritual Theology as a science that helps implement this Demography:




Different topics:

- Mapping Spiritual Life (with St Teresa of Avila)

- The Spiritual Journey (last of 11 very important Diagrams to understand the different stages of Spiritual Life in the Gospel).











Thursday, 11 May 2017

Integral Theology

PPROPOSAL

Proposal
for
Integral Theology formation
___
Jean Khoury and I propose to set up an Institute, under the patronage of Mary “Mater Theologorum”, in which Catholic teaching would be presented, in its entirety and with academic rigour, in a way that fully integrates theology and spiritual theology.
Until the early Middle Ages spiritual life and academic theology were inseparable, but have become distanced since then in a way that does harm to both. The combination of academic teaching and formation in spiritual life will make the Institute distinctive and new in the contemporary field.
Courses will be offered at different levels, from short units taught over a few weeks in a parish to first cycle degree level. It would be offered in suitably adapted forms to all those who are looking for formation: catechists, Catholic teachers, RCIA candidates, those being confirmed as adults, parishioners seeking more formation for themselves, parents,  those wanting to go deeper in the spiritual life, novice-masters/mistresses, those seeking formation as Spiritual Directors, and seminarians.
Teaching and formation would be offered in the five areas of: Bible, Dogmatic theology, Sacraments, Moral Theology, and Pastoral Theology For a schematic presentation and examples of how the integration between dogma and spiritual life would be achieved in each area, please see the accompanying sheets.
Validation will be sought for courses from appropriate institutions at each level.
Jean Khoury has a Masters in Theology from the Institut Catholique in Toulouse and the Teresianum, Rome, and is researching a PhD in Spiritual Theology at the Angelicum. He has written books and articles on prayer and mysticism, and is currently teaching spiritual theology at several venues in London and elsewhere. His website is: www.amorvincit.com and he can be contacted on: jeancyrille@gmail.com
Mgr. Keith Barltrop is parish priest of St. Mary of the Angels, Bayswater, and is a past rector of Allen Hall seminary and director of the Bishops’ Conference Agency for Evangelisation. He can be contacted on: keithbarltrop@rcdow.org.uk
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Topics for a Formation in ‘Integral Theology’
____
Introductory course presenting “Integral Theology”.
Course on the “Call for holiness”.
 Inner line of formation
Bridging-Topics
Outer line of formation
  • Theology of listening
  • Lectio divina
  • “Biblical Inspiration” and “Spiritual Life”
  • Christian Contemplation
  • Spiritual exegesis
Bible
  • Exegesis
  • Canon, Inspiration
  • Biblical Theology
  • Experience of the Trinity
  • Experience of Christ
  • Experience of the Holy Spirit
  • Experience of Mary
  • The spiritual experience of the Church
  • Trinity in Spiritual Life
  • Christ in Spiritual Life
  • The Holy Spirit in Spiritual life
  • Mary in Spiritual Life
  • Church and Spiritual Life
Dogma
  • Trinity
  • Christology
  • Pneumatology
  • Ecclesiology
  • Mariology
  • Spirituality of Priestly Gift of the Faithful
  • Spirituality of Martyrdom
  • Lectio Divina
  • Prayer of the heart – Lift up the heart
  • Digesting the Sacraments
  • Rosary
  • “Fruitful Participation” to the liturgy.
  • Liturgy and Spiritual Life
  • Spirituality of Baptism
  • Spirituality of the Eucharist
  • Spirituality of Marriage
Sacraments
  • 7 Sacraments
  • Liturgy
  • Theological Acts (Faith – Hope – Love)
  • Ups and downs in SL
  • Synergy with the Action of the Holy Spirit – Presence of God
  • Moral Theology and Spiritual Theology
  • Confession and Spiritual Direction
  • Perception of sin in the examination of conscience
Moral Theology
  • General MT
  • Special MT
  • Discernment – Counsel – Government
  • Spiritual Direction
  • Spiritual Pastoral
  • Being fruitful
  • The Holiness of the Priest/minister in his ministry
  • Pastoral techniques under the light of Spiritual Life.
  • Pastoral orientations in the light of the Spiritual Journey.
Pastoral Theology
  • Pastoral Theology
  • Evangelisation
  • Canon Law
Mgr Keith Barltrop
Jean Khoury
Pdf version (click here)

Wednesday, 1 February 2017

Course: The Gospel of St. John and Spiritual Life

February - May 2017


What content is covered?
This Course addresses St John's Gospel “Spiritual Theology”. In the early centuries, St John was the only one named by the Church: “The Theologian” (or “The Divine”); this is because of the depth and height of his contemplation and experience of God. When we study the Sources of Spiritual Theology, we consider St John's writings amongst the most important ones. Leaning on the results of modern exegesis and biblical theology, we will go deeper, to perceive and receive the spiritual and practical teachings of St John's Gospel.

The Course is composed of the following topics, though some might overlap :

1- Presentation of the notion of “Spiritual Biblical Theology”, its relationship with modern “Exegesis” and “Biblical Theology”.
2- Introduction to the person of St John: his life (especially the latter part) and his mission.
3- Analyzing the cornerstone of the Gospel of St John: the Wedding at Cana.
4- St John and the Transfiguration of the Lord.
5- Question of “Holy Saturday” in St John. Re-reading Genesis: “Woman”.
6- Structure and goal of the Gospel of St John: the 6 Signs and the main Sign.
7- The First Sign: the New Wine.
8- The Second Sign: healing the son of the centurion.
9- The Third Sign: the paralytic.
10- The Fourth Sign: multiplying the bread.
11- Fifth Sign: the man blind from birth.
12- Sixth Sign: the resurrection of Lazarus.
13- The Sign par excellence: the Crucified.
14- Reading the Resurrection accounts.
15- The Second level of reading of St John's Gospel.


Who might find the course useful?

The course is for all of us who would like to deepen their reading and understanding of scripture. Especially with regards to their growth in spiritual life.
As with all School of Mary courses, the Patroness of the Course is Our Lady, the Mother of Jesus. 


Dates and times of the Course are:

Wednesdays 22 Feb., 1, 8 ,15, 22 and 29 March, 26 April and 3, 10 and 17 May 2017 from 10:30 am to 12:30 pm.
Tea and coffee are provided.


Where the course takes place?

The course will take place at St Mary of the Angels, Moorhouse Road, Bayswater, London, W2 5DJ. ('Notting Hill Gate' or 'Bayswater' Tube Stations and Buses 7, 23, 27, 28, 31, 70, 328)


Who will teach the course?

The course will be taught by Jean Khoury, a full-time theologian who has studied and taught Spiritual Life in the Church for over twenty years. As well as lecturing world-wide on spiritual life and meditation, Jean is the author of several books, articles and studies on spiritual life and the founder of the School of Mary, a three-level formation in spiritual life (www.amorvincit.com).

Jean obtained a degree in Philosophy from the Institut Catholique de Toulouse (France), a Licence in Theology from the Teresianum (Rome) and a Masters in Spiritual Theology from the Institute Catholique de Toulouse (France). He is currently completing his PhD in Spiritual Theology at the Angelicum (Rome) with Monsignor François-Marie Léthel. Courses at the School of Mary constitute his sole source of income.

How much will the course cost?
The cost for the course is £12 per lesson/ £120 for the full course. As the venue has limited capacity and we expect demand to be very high, participants will need to register and pay a deposit of £25 in advance with any remaining balance to be paid on the first day.

How do I sign up for the course?
Participants will need to register to attend the course and pay a £25 deposit.
If you have any questions, please do write to schoolofmarylondon@gmail.com and we will be happy to respond.
The Course will be recorded. So if you want to watch it, please contact us.

Thursday, 5 January 2017

New Book: The Foundations of Spiritual Life, according to St Teresa of Avila

Just to announce the publishing of the new book, in both formats, Paperback and eBook:


"The Foundations of Spiritual Life, according to St Teresa of Avila",
by Jean Khoury, 123 pages.





You can find it here for the Paperback (USA) Paperback (UK) and here for the eBook format (USA) and eBook (UK). 


From the Cover of the Book:

The Book presents in one volume the core elements of the teaching of St Teresa of Avila in
a highly approachable manner.
St Teresa is a great Master of the Spiritual Life, a Prophet sent by God five centuries ago, a Light that is capable of offering pertinent guidance for the Church.
The author follows St Teresa from within, in her personal relationship with the Risen Lord, revealing the secrets of her teaching and the fruitful way for a living spiritual life that leads to fullness.
St Teresa emerges from this presentation under a new light, capable of inspiring us today.
Formation in Spiritual Life is a very important field in the Church, and it is based on a healthy practical and living Spiritual Theology. The author shows us how St Teresa is capable of renewing these vital areas in the Church.
The book also takes us through the various aspects of the Prayer of the Heart, showing us the ups and downs that can occur. Not only does the author deal with these difficulties, but he does so in a detailed and lively manner.
His approach is of inestimable value in the formation of adult Christians, and indeed in the evangelisation of the Church.


Here are the Chapters of the book:
  • St Teresa of Avila's Important Dates     5
  • Her books     7
  • 1- Is Mysticism for Everybody?     9
  • 2- St. Teresa's Conversion; the meaning of her life     17
  • 3- Christ the Groom     25
  • 4- The Way of Contemplative Prayer     31
  • 5- The Particular Help of the Grace of God     37
  • 6- The Supernatural     43
  • 7- Finding the Correct Path in the Spiritual Life     51
  • 8- Mapping Spiritual Life     57
  • 9- The Movement of Contemplative Prayer     61
  • 10- The Necessity of Mental Prayer     67
  • 11- Humility     73 
  • 12- Detachment     79 
  • 13- Fraternal Charity     85 
  • 14- God's Entrepreneur     91 
  • 15- Evangelisation     99 
  • 16- Teresa's Heritage     111 
  • Conclusion     121

Tuesday, 20 December 2016

St. Maximus the Confessor: 18 Spiritual Interpretations of the Transfiguration

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That The Saints Are Not Introduced into The Mysteries Like Us But going back to what has already been contemplated, let us turn our attention according to our means to the rest of the meaning of the Transfiguration, so that the excellence of the Saints in everything and their genuine separation from the flesh and matter may be seen. And let us note that they do not contemplate either creation or Scripture like us in a material or lowly way. They do not acquire the blessed knowledge of God only by sense and appearances and forms, using letters and syllables, which lead to mistakes and bafflement over the judgment of the truth, but solely by the mind [nous], rendered most pure and released from all material mists. Since therefore we want to judge reverently and see clearly and intelligibly the meanings of those things perceived by the senses, we must look carefully to the inerrant knowledge concerning God and divine things and rightly proceed along the straight path. Further Contemplation of the Transfiguration Containing Eighteen Spiritual Interpretations A. Therefore it was said above that through the luminous brightness that shone from the face of the Lord on the mount, the thrice-blessed apostles were secretly led in an ineffable and unknowable manner to the power and glory of God which is completely incomprehensible to every being, for they learnt that the light that appeared to their senses is a symbol of what is hidden and beyond any manifestation. For as the ray of the light that came to pass here overwhelmed the strength of the eyes and remained beyond their grasp, so also their God transcends all the power and strength of the mind and leaves no kind of trace for the mind to experience. The white garments teach, in a divinely fitting way, at one and the same time both the magnificence that lies in creatures proportionately to the logoi according to which they have come into being and the mysterious revelation found in the understanding of the words of Holy Scripture, so that the written power in the Spirit and the wisdom and knowledge manifested together in creatures are displayed together for the knowledge of God, and through them again he is proportionately manifested. Through Moses and Elijah, who were with Him on either side, they are taught many various conceptions which are put forward as figures of mysteries: through true contemplation of them they found ways of knowing. It is this that must now be examined. 1. And first they received through Moses and Elijah the most reverent notion about how the legal and the prophetic word had always to be present with God the Word, as they are and proclaim from Him and concerning Him and they are established around Him. 2. Then they are taught through them about wisdom and kindness dwelling with Him. It is in accordance with wisdom that the word is declaratory of things made and prohibitory of things not made, and of this Moses is the type, for we believe the grace of law-giving to belong to wisdom. And it is in accordance with kindness that the word invites and causes to return to the divine life those who have slipped away from it, and of this Elijah is the type, through himself manifesting the complete prophetic gift. For the conversion through love for humankind of those who have erred is a characteristic of divine kindness, and the heralds of this we know as the prophets. Continued Part Two
John Sanidopoulos


That The Saints Are Not Introduced into The Mysteries Like Us

But going back to what has already been contemplated, let us turn our attention according to our means to the rest of the meaning of the Transfiguration, so that the excellence of the Saints in everything and their genuine separation from the flesh and matter may be seen. And let us note that they do not contemplate either creation or Scripture like us in a material or lowly way. They do not acquire the blessed knowledge of God only by sense and appearances and forms, using letters and syllables, which lead to mistakes and bafflement over the judgment of the truth, but solely by the mind [nous], rendered most pure and released from all material mists. Since therefore we want to judge reverently and see clearly and intelligibly the meanings of those things perceived by the senses, we must look carefully to the inerrant knowledge concerning God and divine things and rightly proceed along the straight path.

Further Contemplation of the Transfiguration Containing Eighteen Spiritual Interpretations

A. Therefore it was said above that through the luminous brightness that shone from the face of the Lord on the mount, the thrice-blessed apostles were secretly led in an ineffable and unknowable manner to the power and glory of God which is completely incomprehensible to every being, for they learnt that the light that appeared to their senses is a symbol of what is hidden and beyond any manifestation. For as the ray of the light that came to pass here overwhelmed the strength of the eyes and remained beyond their grasp, so also their God transcends all the power and strength of the mind and leaves no kind of trace for the mind to experience. The white garments teach, in a divinely fitting way, at one and the same time both the magnificence that lies in creatures proportionately to the logoi according to which they have come into being and the mysterious revelation found in the understanding of the words of Holy Scripture, so that the written power in the Spirit and the wisdom and knowledge manifested together in creatures are displayed together for the knowledge of God, and through them again he is proportionately manifested. Through Moses and Elijah, who were with Him on either side, they are taught many various conceptions which are put forward as figures of mysteries: through true contemplation of them they found ways of knowing. It is this that must now be examined.

1. And first they received through Moses and Elijah the most reverent notion about how the legal and the prophetic word had always to be present with God the Word, as they are and proclaim from Him and concerning Him and they are established around Him.

2. Then they are taught through them about wisdom and kindness dwelling with Him. It is in accordance with wisdom that the word is declaratory of things made and prohibitory of things not made, and of this Moses is the type, for we believe the grace of law-giving to belong to wisdom. And it is in accordance with kindness that the word invites and causes to return to the divine life those who have slipped away from it, and of this Elijah is the type, through himself manifesting the complete prophetic gift. For the conversion through love for humankind of those who have erred is a characteristic of divine kindness, and the heralds of this we know as the prophets.

3. Or Knowledge and Education. Knowledge is the source in human beings of the understanding of good and evil. "For I have set before your face", he says, "life and death" (Deut. 30:19), the one you are to elect, the other to flee, and lest through ignorance you disguise the worse with the good, Moses proclaims what is to be done, prefiguring in himself the symbols of the truth. Education is needed for those who without restraint do what is contrary and indiscriminately mix what should not be mixed. In Israel the great Elijah was their teacher, the scourge of indifference, who, like reason, led to understanding and sense the mindlessness and hardness of those who were utterly addicted to evil.

4. Or Ascetic Struggle and Contemplation. Ascetic struggle destroys evil and through the demonstration of the virtues cuts off from the world those who are completely led through it in their disposition, just as Moses led Israel out of Egypt and educated her persuasively through the divine laws of the Spirit. Contemplation seizes them as it were from matter and form, like Elijah on his chariot of fire, leading them to God through knowledge and uniting them with Him, so that they are no longer weighed down by the flesh because of the setting aside of its law, nor burning with zeal for the fulfillment of the commandments, because of the grace of poverty of spirit mixed with all real virtues.

5. Or again they learnt from the Word the mysteries of marriage and celibacy: through Moses, how one is not prevented by marriage from being a lover of divine glory; and through Elijah, how he remained completely pure from any marital intercourse, and how the Word and God proclaims that those who direct themselves in these things by reason according to the laws that are divinely laid down concerning them are made to enter into Himself in a hidden way.

6. Or Life and Death: through them they are faithfully assurred the Word is Lord.

7. Or they learnt, too, through these that everyone lives to God and no one at all is dead with Him, but that one kills oneself through sin and, through the willing turning towards the passions, cuts oneself off from the Word.

8. Or again they received illumination that the types of the mysteries exist in relation to and are referred to the Word, which is the truth, and are brought into agreement with It, as the beginning and end of the legal and prophetic work.

9. Or everything that is after God and has come into being from God, that is the nature of beings and time, these appear together, so far as is possible, with God who appears as cause and maker. And of these, the type of time is Moses, not only as the teacher of time and of number in accordance with time (for he was the first to count time from the creation of the world), or as one who instituted temporal worship, but also as not entering bodily into rest with those whom he had instructed before the divine promise. For such is time, not overtaking or accompanying in movement those whom it is accustomed to escort to the divine life of the age to come. For it has Jesus as the universal successor of time and eternity. And if otherwise the logoi of time abide in God, then there is manifest in a hidden way the entry of the law given through Moses in the desert to those who receive the land of possession. For time is eternity, when movement is stilled, and eternity is time, when it is measured by movement, since, by definition, eternity is time deprived of movement, and time is eternity measured by movement. Elijah, however, is the type of nature, not only as guarding inviolate the logoi within himself, and keeping the intention according to inclination in them free from any change due to passion, but also as educating in judgment, like the natural law, those who use nature unnaturally. For such is nature, punishing as much those who are set to corrupt it, as those who aim to live contrary to nature, who do not acquire the whole power of nature naturally, and cause its soundness to deteriorate, and are therefore fit to be punished, since they thoughtlessly and mindlessly provide themselves with a deficiency of being through their inclination towards non-being.

10. Equally anyone who says that the intelligible and sensible creation of the fashioner Word is understood through Moses and Elijah does not utterly stray from the truth. Of these Moses offers the meaning [logos] of the sensible, that is subject to change and corruption, as his history of it clearly shows, declaring its origination and death. For the sensible creation is such as to have a beginning known in coming to be, and to look for an end determined by destruction. Elijah [offers the meaning] of the intelligible, neither declaring its coming to be in his account of it, as if it had been generated, nor defining it as looking for corruption through death, as if it were to die. For the intelligible creation is such as to have no beginning of its coming to be that is manifest to human beings, and if it comes to be and commences and passes from non-being to being, it does not await an end of its existence defined by corruption. For it is naturally imperishable, having received this from God who willed to create it such.

B. Lest I appear to any to be more curious than is necessary, another great and divine mystery, I think, is revealed to us in the divine Transfiguration, more radiant than what I have just said. For I think that the divinely-fitting events that took place on the mount at the Transfiguration secretly indicate the two universal modes of theology: that is, that which is pre-eminent and simple and uncaused, and through sole and complete denial truly affirms the divine, and fittingly and solemnly exalts its transcendence through speechlessness, and then that which follows this and is composite, and from what has been caused magnificently sketches out [the divine] through affirmation. By these, so far as it is within human capacity, the knowledge that hovers above concerning God and the divine leads us through symbols naturally fitted to us to both these modes [of theology], through reverent understanding of both kinds of beings establishing their logoi, and teaching that every symbol that transcends the senses belongs to the first mode [of theology], and educating us that the accumulated mighty works of the sensible order belong to the second. For from the symbols that transcend the senses we believe only the truth that transcends reason and mind, barely daring to investigate or to form an idea of what and how and of what kind it is, and where and when, avoiding what is irreverent in the undertaking. And from those things on the sensible level, so far as is possible to us, from thought alone we plainly form conjectures concerning the knowledge of God and say that He is all that we can deduce from the fact that He is the cause of all that he has made.



C. Let us consider whether in each of the above-mentioned forms [of theology] the symbol is really and wisely constituted in accordance with the divine Transfiguration of the Lord. For He accepted to be unchangeably created in form like us and through His immeasurable love for humankind to become the type and symbol of Himself, and from Himself symbolically to represent Himself, and through the manifestation of Himself to lead to Himself in His complete and secret hiddenness the whole creation, and while he remains quite unknown in His hidden, secret place beyond all things, unable to be known or understood by any being in any way whatever, out of His love for humankind He grants to human beings intimations of Himself in the manifest divine works performed in the flesh.

D. The light from the face of the Lord, therefore, conquers the human blessedness of the apostles by a hidden apophatic theology. According to this [light], the blessed and holy Godhead is by essence beyond ineffability and unknowability and countlessly raised above all infinity, leaving not the slightest trace of comprehension to those who are after it [sc. the Godhead], nor disclosing any idea to any being as to how and how far the same is both monad and triad, since the uncreated is not naturally contained by creation, nor is the unlimited comprehended by what is limited.

E. The affirmative mode [of theology] can be differentiated into those concerned with activity, with providence and with judgment. The mode [concerned with activity], starting from the beauty and magnitude of creatures, introduces the explanation that God of all is fashioner, this shown through the radiant garments of the Lord, which the Word shows to be the manifestation of creatures.
Page 5 of 5Continued from Part Five

F. The mode concerned with providence signifies through Moses how out of love for humankind it is raised above those who are embroiled in evil and error and wisely distinguishes among human beings the ways of departure from the material and corruptible and bodily to the divine and immaterial and bodiless, and with understanding implants the divine laws.

G. The mode of judgment suggests through Elijah how judgment punishes by word and deed those who deserve it, and deals with others suitably in each case in accordance with the underlying matter and kind of virtue or evil. For according to this scriptural passage, it is from things seen beforehand that Moses and Elijah sketch figuratively divine matters in the best way possible, each in a way appropriate to the mode of spiritual contemplation.

H. From what they [Moses and Elijah] said to the Lord and their speaking of the exodus that was about to be fulfilled in Jerusalem, they were taught not only about the accomplishment of the mysteries proclaimed beforehand and by the law and the prophets, but equally they learnt that the precise measure of the ineffable will of God concerning the universe is not to be apprehended by any being at all, nor the measure of the divine economies consequent on that will, nor yet the measure of his great providence and judgment, through which the universe is led in an orderly manner towards the end that is known beforehand by God alone. Of this no one knows its nature, or how it will be, or in what form or when, it is simply known that it will be, and then only to those who have purified their souls through the virtues and have inclined the whole of their mind wholly towards the divine. To them there is granted, as has been said, an apprehension of providence and judgment of the whole nature of visible things, and the modes through which the end of this present harmony naturally consist, and is well-nigh expressly proclaimed.

From Maximus the Confessor by Andrew Louth (Routledge: London 1999) pp. 128-134.